BS 142 features the return of Dr. Michael Graziano, who first appeared on Brain Science in BSP 108. In this episode we talk about his new book, The Spaces Between Us: A Story of Neuroscience, Evolution, and Human Nature. This is an exploration of peripersonal neurons. We explore not just how they were discovered, but why they are so important in our daily lives, affecting everything from tool use to getting along with others.Read More
BSP 121 is an interview with AD (Bud) Craig, author of How Do You Feel?: An Interoceptive Moment with Your Neurobiological Self. Even though his book is quite technical he does a great job of describing his discoveries in a way that is accessible for listeners of all backgrounds.Read More
In his latest book Consciousness and the Social Brain Princeton neuroscientist Michael Graziano proposes a unique and compelling theory of consciousness. He proposes that the same circuits that the human brain uses to attribute awareness to others are used to model self-awareness. He emphasizes that his attention schema theory is only tentative, but it is testable and it does fit our current knowledge of brain function.
In a recent interview for the Brain Science Podcast (BSP 108), Graziano used the following clinical example to clarify his approach. A colleague had a patient who was convinced that he had a squirrel in his head. When confronted with the illogic of his claim the patient replied “Not everything can be explained by science.” In this example it is clear that the squirrel doesn’t really exist, so the question to be answered is HOW did his brain reach the conclusion that it does.
While imagining one has a squirrel in one’s head is thankfully rare, we also know that our subjective experiences of the world are not necessarily accurate. Our perception of the world is shaped by how our brain processes the sensory inputs it receives. For example, we perceive white light as an absence of color even though in reality it consists of all wavelengths.
Perception is something our brains do constantly and which we can not consciously control. In considering awareness (and by extension consciousness) perception-like Graziano is emphasizing several important features. The most important is probably the fact that it is only “quick and dirty model” of what is really going on, which means that our intuitions about consciousness are not necessarily reliable. In fact, humans have a strong tendency to over-attribute awareness to the world around us. This is part of the social circuitry that has made us the most successful species in the earth’s history, but it can also lead to amusing results (as anyone who has interacted with Siri on an iPhone has no doubt observed).
Another implication of considering awareness as a form of social perception is that it reverses the usual approach taken to understanding consciousness. Instead of asking how a physical brain can produce something subjective and non-physical called consciousness, we ask what kind of information processing leads to the conclusion that I (or anyone else) is conscious. As Graziano points out, this is a “mechanistic” model. Not only can it be tested but it has interesting implications. Dr. Graziano concluded that one of the key implications is "that awareness and consciousness are tools for information processing, and they are mechanistically understandable, and presumably can be engineered.”
I find the attention schema theory to be very compelling. Besides being testable, it has a simple elegance that I appreciate. It also explains why most humans experience a world filled with spirits, and are utterly convinced that their own consciousness is something special and non-physical.
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- New episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are always FREE. All episodes posted after January 1, 2013, are free. See the individual show notes for links the audio files.
Since understanding consciousness is one of the deepest questions facing neuroscience, it has been explored on many previous episodes of the Brain Science Podcast. Rather than list all those episodes I want to mention just a few that I think are particularly relevant to this month’s episode.
In BSP 57 psychologist Chris Frith (Making up the Mind: How the Brain Creates Our Mental World) introduced the idea that our brain creates the world we experience, but that world is not necessarily an accurate representation of the physical world around us.
In BSP 67 philosopher Thomas Metzinger (The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self) considered how unusual experiences (like the out of body illusion) shed light on how our brains create the world we experience, including our experience of who we are.
- Please post your comments about this episodes in the new thread on our Goodreads page at http://brainscienceforum.com.
- Dr. Campbell will be speaking at The Amazing Meeting this July. This year's theme is skepticism and the brain.
- Don't forget to check out listener John Richards new neuroscience glossary at http://richardsonthebrain.com.
Episode 90 of the Brain Science Podcast is a discussion of Self Comes To Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain, by Antonio Damasio. Damasio's book focuses on the answer to two key questions: How does the brain generate the Mind? and, How does the Brain generate Consciousness? His approach is unusual because many scientists and writers treat the Mind and Consciousness as identical. In contrast, Damasio argues that Mind precedes Consciousness. Listen to this podcast to learn how the Mind becomes Conscious.
How to get this episode:
Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain, by Antonio Damasio.
The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness, by Antonio Damasio.
Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions, by Jaak Panksepp.
The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions, by Jaak Panksepp and Lucy Biven.
Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind, by Evan Thompson
Psychology (10th Edition) by Carole Wade and Carol Tavris.
I of the Vortex: From Neurons to Self, by Rodolfo R. Llinas.
For more references see the episode transcript.
Related Episodes of the Brain Science Podcast:
BSP 65: Jaak Panksepp talks about the subcortical origins of emotions
BSP 89: Evan Thompson talks about his book, Mind in Life
Next month's Brain Science Podcast will be a return interview with Jaak Panksepp to talk about his new book, The Archaeology of Mind: Neuroevolutionary Origins of Human Emotions.
Please check out my other podcast, Books and Ideas.
The earliest episodes of the Brain Science Podcast are no longer available from iTunes but you can get them here or by buying the Brain Science Podcast app, which is available for iPhone, iPad, and Android.
Get my eBook, Are You Sure? The Unconscious Origins of Certainty, from Amazon.com for only $3.99.
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In his book Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines---and How It Will Change Our Lives neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis puts his recent work with brain machine interfaces into historical context and explains why this work should change the way we understand how brains work.
Nicolelis challenges several long-standing assumptions including the primacy of the single neuron and strict localization, which is the idea that each area of the brain has a relatively fixed function.
Episode 78 of the Brain Science Podcast is a brief discussion of the key ideas presented in Beyond Boundaries, including a look at the implications of experiments such as the wide publicized work that culminated in demonstrating that a monkey in Nicolelis' lab at Duke (North Carolina, USA) could control a robot arm in Japan using only its brain.
How to get this episode:
- Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains with Machines---and How It Will Change Our Lives by Miguel Nicolelis (2011).
- In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind by Eric R. Kandel (2006).
- Nicolelis, Miguel A.L., Rick C. S. Lin, et al. "Peripheral block of ascending cutaneous information induces immediate spatiotemporal changes in thalamic networks.: Nature 361 (1993): 533-536. (Abstract)
- Nicolelis, Miguel A.L, and John K. Chapin. "Controlling robots with the Mind." Scientific American 287, no. 4 (2002) 24-31.
- BSP 3: a discussion of In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind by Eric Kandel.
- BSP 21: introduction to Body Maps
- BSP 23: interview with Sandra Blakeslee author of The Body Has a Mind of Its Own: How Body Maps in Your Brain Help You Do (Almost) Everything Better.
- BSP 74: interview with Olaf Sporns, author of Networks of the Brain.
- I hope to interview Miguel Nicolelis for a future episode of the Brain Science Podcast. If you would like to ask him a question please post it in the thread I have started on our GoodReads page.
- I will be attending ScienceOnline 2012. If you want to come be sure to sign up NOW.
- The Brain Science Podcast is supported by donations from listeners like you.
This episode is an interview with Sandra Blakeslee, co-author (with her son Matthew) of The Body Has a Mind of Its Own: How Body Maps Help You Do (almost) Everything Better, which we discussed in Episode 21.
How to get this episode:
I asked Blakeslee to tell me a little bit of her background as a science writer. She wrote for the New York Times for many years and was the co-author of both Jeff Hawkins groundbreaking book, On Intelligence, and VS Ramachandran's modern classic Phantoms in the Brain (1998), which was one of the first books to explore neuroplasticity.
In this interview, we explored the relationship between body maps and neuroplasticity, as well as questions from listeners about out of body experiences and other oddities once considered "paranormal." We talked about how body maps are relevant to understanding why some methods of alternative healing appear to be effective.
I asked her to tell me which scientist she met made the biggest impression. Here are a few of those she mentioned:
- Marco Iacoboni at UCLA.
- Atsushi Iriki-cyberspace.
- Olaf Blanke in Switzerland, who has discovered how the angular gyrus is involved in out-of-body experiences.
- Arthur "Bud" Craig who is the pioneer of mapping the insula.
- Michael Merzenich-a pioneer in the field of neuroplasticity who also helped design the first cochlear implant.
Blakeslee told me about some of the pioneering work that Merzenich is doing to apply his discoveries to help people, both those with disabilities and those who just want to combat aging. You can learn more about his work at http://www.positscience.com/.
If you would like to contact Sandra Blakeslee to give her feedback or ask her questions, she has a contact form on her books website at http://www.thebodyhasamindofitsown.com/. She is going to let me know when she gets the references posted on the site.
Featured in this episode: The Body has a Mind of Its Own: How Body Maps in Your Brain Help You Do (Almost) Everything Better (2007), by Sandra Blakeslee and Matthew Blakeslee. (Also available on from Audible.com)
How to get this episode:
- Body maps and the role of embodiment.
- Basic ideas about the body maps in the brain.
- Mapping the world around us.
- How body maps differ between species.
- Body schema and body image.
- The role of body maps in disease.
- The role of belief in health and illness.
- How body maps explain non-traditional healing methods and unusual experiences.
- The role of motor imagery in improving motor skills.
- Mirror Neurons and grid neurons in the hippocampus (see more on Scholarpedia).
- How sensation and emotions come together (the role of the insula).
Scientists mentioned in the podcast:
- Wilder Penfield: Discovered the maps of the primary sensory and primary motor cortex.
- Sir Henry Head and Gordon Holmes: British neurologists who first proposed the idea of the body schema in 1911.
- Arthur Craig: First to study the unique wiring of the insula.
- Antonio Damasio: studies the role of emotion in intelligent decision-making.
- Marco Iacoboni: Demonstrated the role of the right angular cingulate gyrus in our sense of self versus others. (Dr. Iacoboni has PDF's available on his site).
Other scientists mentioned in The Body has a Mind of Its Own:
- William Straub: Sports psychologist who demonstrated that students could improve at darts through mental imagery.
- Alvaro Pascual-Leone: Used 5 finger piano exercise to show changes in motor maps both from actual practice and from imagery.
- Michael Merzenich: Classic experiments showing changing in motor maps in monkeys.
- Scott Frey: Using imagery in stroke rehab.
- Jennifer Stevens: Use of mirror boxes in stroke rehab.
- Edoardo Bisiach: Theories about spatial awareness and neglect.
- Jamie Ward: Documented a patient with color-emotion synesthesia as possible explanation for auras.
- Olaf Blanke: Studies the anterior cingulate gyrus, which map be important in out-of-body experiences.
- Atsushi Iriki: Has demonstrated how the parietal lobes in monkeys change with tool use.
- Christian Keysters: Thinks mirror neurons may be a key precursor for the development of abstract thought and language
- Hugo Critchley: Expert in brain imaging who is interested in the relationship between emotional intelligence and interoception (visceral awareness).
- John Allman: Studies the role of the frontal insula and anterior cingulate gyrus in intuition (quick decisions).
- Sara Lazar: Has demontrated that the right frontal insula and left prefrontal cortex increase in size in experienced meditators.
Note: This list is not exhaustive. I know I left off VS Ramachandran and several others, but those listed above did work that was addressed, directly or indirectly, in my podcast.